Its already one year over for the 2010 batches. Usually Software companies won't recruit freshers when they have more than one year gap. But with the recession of the last few years IT companies are recruiting freshers even they have more than one year gap. Wipro has called the 2010 passed out batches to attend the interview. They are recruiting 2010 BE/B.Tech passed outs. Even they are calling for the 2009 passed outs. I hope this is the last chance for the 2009 and 2010 passed outs. You can apply directly from the Wipro's website. Click Here to apply to Wipro. This link will redirect you to the Wipro's website. Last day to apply for this job is 30th May 2011. Apply for the job. They will call you or mail you for the interview. All the best for your interview.

## Saturday, May 28, 2011

### Chetanas has created a new website for Java Programers

Day by day JAVA programmers are increasing. Most of the applications are done through Java coding. We can do any kind of applications with JAVA. All the companies are hiring JAVA professionals. Every company are in need of JAVA professionals. Its easy to get a job if you know JAVA. But the pay will be vary from company to company. Chetanas forun is one of the best online job portal as they are doing wonderful job for the freshers as well as the experienced professionals. The percentage of fake jobs was less when compared to other job portals. We can assure the company posted in chetanas forum was a good company. Now Chetanas forum has a new portal for JAVA professionals. We can search JAVA programming vacancies in this portal.Click Here to visit the portal for JAVA vacancies. The portal name is http://javaken.com

## Tuesday, May 24, 2011

### DIGITAL IMAGING PROCESSING ONE MARK

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

1. Preprocessing of an image is done in

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

2. Which process is called subjective process?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

3. Which process is called an objective process?

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

4. Which process split an input image into its constituent parts

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

Which process involves the mathematical or probabilistic methods in its operation

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

6. Which process is used in improving image contrast?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

7. Which Process is used in removal of optical distortions?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

8. Which technique is used for reducing the storage required to save an image

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

9. Which Process is used in sharpening or de-blurring an out of focus image?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

10. Which Process is used in removing periodic interference?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

11. Which process uses tools for extracting image components

Compression

Morphological Processing

Restoration.

Segmentation

12. Which Process involves removing of blur caused by linear motion?

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

13. Which process transforms raw data into a form suitable for subsequent processing

Image Representation

Morphological Processing

Image Restoration

Image compression

14. Which process is also called feature selection?

Image Description

Morphological Processing

Image Restoration

Image Segmentation

15. Which is the process that assigns a label (e.g., “vehicle”) to an object based on its descriptors?

Image Description

Morphological Processing

Image Recognition

Image Segmentation

16. In each eye, cones are in the range of

6-7 million.

75-150 million

65-75 million

5-7 million

17. In each eye, rods are in the range of

6-7 million

75-150 million

65-75 million

5-7 million

18. Scotopic vision is also called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

19. Photopic vision is also called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

20. Cone vision is called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

21. The observer is looking at a tree15 m high at a distance of 100 m , Calculate the height in mm of

that object in the retinal image

0.15 mm

2.55 mm

0.55 mm

6.66 mm

22. Weber Ratio is given by

∆i * i

∆i / i

i /∆i

i-∆i

23. The spatial interaction of Luminance from an object and its surround creates a phenomenon

called

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

24. Intensity as preserved by the human visual system is called as

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

25. Which operation increases the dynamic range of the gray levels in the image?

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Contrast stretching

26. Digitizing the amplitude values is called

Quantization

Compression

Sampling

Restoration

27. Digitization of spatial coordinates (x,y) is called

Quantization

Compression

Sampling

Restoration

28. Which type of image is commonly used as a multiplier to mask regions within another image.

Binary images

Indexed Images

Gray scale image

RGB image

29. Find the number of bits required to store a M X N image with 2m gray levels?

M X N X m bits

m X N bits

M X N bits

m X M bits

30. Find the number of bits required to store a 256 X 256 image with 64 gray levels?

655360 bits

65536 bits

393216 bits

327680bits

31. Find the number of bits required to store a 512 X 512 RGB color image with 2 grey levels?

.786 MB

.262 MB

512 MB

1024 MB

32. The Euclidean distance between p and q is defined as

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

33. Chess board (D8) distance is calculated by

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

34. The effect of aliased frequencies can be seen under the right conditions in the form of so called

Moire Patterns

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

35. City block (D4) distance is calculated by

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

36. Give the relation for 1d DCT

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

37. Give the relation for 1d DFT

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

38. Give the relation for Hadamard Transform

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

1/N

∑

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

39. Give the relation for Walsh Transform

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

40. Which model is used for color monitor & color video camera?

RGB model

CMY model

YIQ model

HIS model

41. Which model is used for color printing?

YIQ model

CMY model

HIS model

RGB model

42. Which model is used for color image processing?

RGB model

YIQ model

CMY model

HIS model

43. Which model is used for color picture transmission?

RGB model

YIQ model

HIS model

CMY model

44. Zooming of digital images may be viewed as

over sampling

under sampling

flat sampling

critical sampling

45. Shrinking of digital images may be viewed as

over sampling

under sampling

flat sampling

critical sampling

46. Give the Conditions for perfect transform

Transpose of matrix ! = Inverse of a matrix.

Transpose of matrix = ( inverse of a matrix )2

Transpose of matrix = Inverse of a matrix

Transpose of matrix = ( inverse of a matrix )1/2.

47. Which transform is called very fast transform?

HAAR Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SINE Transform

COSINE Transform

48. Which transform has very poor energy compaction for images?

COSINE Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

49. Which transform has very good energy compaction for images?

COSINE Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

50. The basic vectors of Slant matrix are

Uniformly ordred

sequensely ordered

Randomly ordred

not sequensely ordered

51. The basic vectors of HAAR matrix are

Uniformly ordred

sequensely ordered

Randomly ordred

not sequensely ordered

52. Which Transform is an optimal in the sense that it minimizes the mean square error between the

vectors X and their approximations X^?

KL Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

53. Which Transform is very good energy compaction for highly correlated images?

KL Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

54. Which Transform has excellent energy compaction for highly correlated data?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

COSINE Transform

HAAR Transform

55. A measure of the smallest discernible detail in an image is

Intensity Resolution

Frequency Resolution

Spatial resolution

Spectral resolution

56. The negative of an image with gray levels in the range [0,L-1] is obtained by using the negative

transformation given as:

s=(L+1)-r

s=(L-1)-r

s=(L-1)+r

s=(L+1)+r

57. Which domain refers to image plane itself?

Laplace

Frequency

Spatial

Spectral

58. Which method is based on modifying the image by Fourier transform?

Image domain

Frequency domain

Spatial domain

Spectral domain

59. Which operation reduces an image of higher contrast than the original by darkening the levels

below m and brightening the levels above m in the image?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

60. Which operation is used in enhancing masses of water in satellite imagery?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

61. Which operation is used in enhancing flaws in x-ray images?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

62. Which operation is used in highlighting the contribution made to total image appearance by

specific bits might be desired?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

63. The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range [0,L-1] is h(rk)=

k

nk

n

n/k

64. An information about the degradation must be extracted from the observed image either explicitly

or implicitly is called as

Blind image restoration

Inverse Filtering

Least Mean square filtering

Singular value Decomposition

65. This PDF P(Z)= 2(z-a)e-(z—a)2/b/b for Z>=a belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Rayleigh noise

Impulse Noise

66. This PDF P(Z)=e-(Z-µ)2/2σ2/√2πσ belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Gamma Noise

Rayleigh noise

Impulse Noise

67. This PDF P(Z)=ab zb-1 ae-az/(b-1) for Z>=0 belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Uniform noise

Gamma Noise

68. This PDF P(Z)= ae-az

Z>=0 belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Exponential noise

Rayleigh noise

Gamma Noise

69. This PDF P(Z)=1/(b-a) if a<=Z<=b belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Uniform noise

Gamma Noise

70. ------------ is the process of recovering the input of the system from its output?

Blind image restoration

Inverse Filtering

Least Mean square filtering

Singular value Decomposition

71. Wiener filtering is a method of restoring images in the

presence of blurr as well as noise

presence of noise only

abscence of blurr as well as noise

absence of blurr only

72. Which transform gives best energy packing efficiency for any given image?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SVD Transform

HAAR Transform

73. Which transform is useful in the design of filters finding least square?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

KL Transform

SVD Transform

74. Hotteling Transform is also called as

KL Transform

HAAR Transform

SLANT Transform

SVD Transform

75. Which transform involves Principle of component analysis

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

KL Transform

SVD Transform

76. The basis of reduction process is removal of redundant data is called

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

77. The pseudo inverse filter is defined as

H^(u,v)=1/(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=1/(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=(H(u,v)

78. This function represents which filter?

Contra harmonic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Arithmetic mean filter

79. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Contra harmonic mean filter

80. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Contra harmonic mean filter

Harmonic filters

81. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Contra harmonic mean filter

82. The effect of salt and pepper noise can be eliminated using

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Contra harmonic mean filter

Harmonic filters

83. Which filter has positive coefficient near the center and negative in the outer periphery.

Median filter

High pass spatial filter

Derivative filter

Low pass spatial filter

84. The first derivative at any point in an image is obtained by using

Laplacian at that point

the magnitude of the gradient at that point

the phase of the gradient at that point

Fourier transform at that point

85. The second derivative at any point in an image is obtained by using

Laplacian at that point

the magnitude of the gradient at that point

the phase of the gradient at that point

Fourier transform at that point

86. Compression Ratio =

original size - compressed size: 1

original size * compressed size: 1

original size + compressed size: 1

original size / compressed size: 1

87. Which is a technique used to reduce the size of a repeating string of characters?

Huffman coding

Runlength coding

Arithmetic coding

LZW coding

88. Run length coding is the example of

coding redundancy

compression redundancy

psycho visual redundancy

interpixel redundancy

89. ------------ transforms the input data into non-visual format.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

90. Which of this step is omitted if the system is error free.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

91. ----------- reduces the coding redundancy.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

92. ---------- reduces the interpixel redundancy.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

93. -------------- reduces the psycho visual redundancy of the input images.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

94. Hamming code is the example for

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Channel encoder

95. Variable Length Coding reduces

coding redundancy

compression redundancy

psycho visual redundancy

interpixel redundancy

96. A code word that is not a prefix of any other code word is called

Huffman code

Block code

Instantaneous code

Arithmetic code

97. One to one corresponds between source symbols and code word doesn’t exist in

Huffman code

Block code

LZW code

Arithmetic code

98. JPEG stands for

Joint Pixel Expert Group

Joint Photographic Expert Group

Joint Photographic Expand Group

Joint Picture Expert Group

99. Data Redundancy Rd =

1-Cr

1/Cr

1-1/Cr

1+1/Cr

Calculate the data redundancy if N1 = 2 , n2 =1

0.5

1

0

-1

Download this one mark with Answers

PREPARED BY

___

Er. M. ARUN M.E. MIEEE, MISTE

LECTURER ECE

1. Preprocessing of an image is done in

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

2. Which process is called subjective process?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

3. Which process is called an objective process?

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

4. Which process split an input image into its constituent parts

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

Which process involves the mathematical or probabilistic methods in its operation

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

6. Which process is used in improving image contrast?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

7. Which Process is used in removal of optical distortions?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

8. Which technique is used for reducing the storage required to save an image

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

9. Which Process is used in sharpening or de-blurring an out of focus image?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

10. Which Process is used in removing periodic interference?

image acquisition

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

11. Which process uses tools for extracting image components

Compression

Morphological Processing

Restoration.

Segmentation

12. Which Process involves removing of blur caused by linear motion?

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

13. Which process transforms raw data into a form suitable for subsequent processing

Image Representation

Morphological Processing

Image Restoration

Image compression

14. Which process is also called feature selection?

Image Description

Morphological Processing

Image Restoration

Image Segmentation

15. Which is the process that assigns a label (e.g., “vehicle”) to an object based on its descriptors?

Image Description

Morphological Processing

Image Recognition

Image Segmentation

16. In each eye, cones are in the range of

6-7 million.

75-150 million

65-75 million

5-7 million

17. In each eye, rods are in the range of

6-7 million

75-150 million

65-75 million

5-7 million

18. Scotopic vision is also called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

19. Photopic vision is also called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

20. Cone vision is called as

Dim light vision

Bright light vision

Moderate vision

No vision

21. The observer is looking at a tree15 m high at a distance of 100 m , Calculate the height in mm of

that object in the retinal image

0.15 mm

2.55 mm

0.55 mm

6.66 mm

22. Weber Ratio is given by

∆i * i

∆i / i

i /∆i

i-∆i

23. The spatial interaction of Luminance from an object and its surround creates a phenomenon

called

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

24. Intensity as preserved by the human visual system is called as

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

25. Which operation increases the dynamic range of the gray levels in the image?

Subjective brightness

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Contrast stretching

26. Digitizing the amplitude values is called

Quantization

Compression

Sampling

Restoration

27. Digitization of spatial coordinates (x,y) is called

Quantization

Compression

Sampling

Restoration

28. Which type of image is commonly used as a multiplier to mask regions within another image.

Binary images

Indexed Images

Gray scale image

RGB image

29. Find the number of bits required to store a M X N image with 2m gray levels?

M X N X m bits

m X N bits

M X N bits

m X M bits

30. Find the number of bits required to store a 256 X 256 image with 64 gray levels?

655360 bits

65536 bits

393216 bits

327680bits

31. Find the number of bits required to store a 512 X 512 RGB color image with 2 grey levels?

.786 MB

.262 MB

512 MB

1024 MB

32. The Euclidean distance between p and q is defined as

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

33. Chess board (D8) distance is calculated by

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

34. The effect of aliased frequencies can be seen under the right conditions in the form of so called

Moire Patterns

Brightness adaptation

Mach band effect

Simultaneous Contrast

35. City block (D4) distance is calculated by

Max | ( x – s ) | , | ( y – t ) |

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]

[( x – s )2 + ( y – t ) 2 ]1/2

|(x–s)|+|(y–t)|

36. Give the relation for 1d DCT

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

37. Give the relation for 1d DFT

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

38. Give the relation for Hadamard Transform

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

1/N

∑

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

39. Give the relation for Walsh Transform

1/N x=0∑N-1 f(x) exp [-j2πux/N]

α(u) x=0∑N-1f(x)cos[(2x+1)uπ/2N]

N −1

∑

1/N

x =0

1/N

x=0∑ N-1 f(x) i=0

f(x) (-1) ∑i =0

Π n-1 (-1) bi (x) bn-1-I (u)

40. Which model is used for color monitor & color video camera?

RGB model

CMY model

YIQ model

HIS model

41. Which model is used for color printing?

YIQ model

CMY model

HIS model

RGB model

42. Which model is used for color image processing?

RGB model

YIQ model

CMY model

HIS model

43. Which model is used for color picture transmission?

RGB model

YIQ model

HIS model

CMY model

44. Zooming of digital images may be viewed as

over sampling

under sampling

flat sampling

critical sampling

45. Shrinking of digital images may be viewed as

over sampling

under sampling

flat sampling

critical sampling

46. Give the Conditions for perfect transform

Transpose of matrix ! = Inverse of a matrix.

Transpose of matrix = ( inverse of a matrix )2

Transpose of matrix = Inverse of a matrix

Transpose of matrix = ( inverse of a matrix )1/2.

47. Which transform is called very fast transform?

HAAR Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SINE Transform

COSINE Transform

48. Which transform has very poor energy compaction for images?

COSINE Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

49. Which transform has very good energy compaction for images?

COSINE Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

50. The basic vectors of Slant matrix are

Uniformly ordred

sequensely ordered

Randomly ordred

not sequensely ordered

51. The basic vectors of HAAR matrix are

Uniformly ordred

sequensely ordered

Randomly ordred

not sequensely ordered

52. Which Transform is an optimal in the sense that it minimizes the mean square error between the

vectors X and their approximations X^?

KL Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

53. Which Transform is very good energy compaction for highly correlated images?

KL Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SLANT Transform

HAAR Transform

54. Which Transform has excellent energy compaction for highly correlated data?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

COSINE Transform

HAAR Transform

55. A measure of the smallest discernible detail in an image is

Intensity Resolution

Frequency Resolution

Spatial resolution

Spectral resolution

56. The negative of an image with gray levels in the range [0,L-1] is obtained by using the negative

transformation given as:

s=(L+1)-r

s=(L-1)-r

s=(L-1)+r

s=(L+1)+r

57. Which domain refers to image plane itself?

Laplace

Frequency

Spatial

Spectral

58. Which method is based on modifying the image by Fourier transform?

Image domain

Frequency domain

Spatial domain

Spectral domain

59. Which operation reduces an image of higher contrast than the original by darkening the levels

below m and brightening the levels above m in the image?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

60. Which operation is used in enhancing masses of water in satellite imagery?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

61. Which operation is used in enhancing flaws in x-ray images?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

62. Which operation is used in highlighting the contribution made to total image appearance by

specific bits might be desired?

Contrast stretching

Grey level slicing

Bit plane slicing

Subjective Brightness

63. The histogram of a digital image with gray levels in the range [0,L-1] is h(rk)=

k

nk

n

n/k

64. An information about the degradation must be extracted from the observed image either explicitly

or implicitly is called as

Blind image restoration

Inverse Filtering

Least Mean square filtering

Singular value Decomposition

65. This PDF P(Z)= 2(z-a)e-(z—a)2/b/b for Z>=a belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Rayleigh noise

Impulse Noise

66. This PDF P(Z)=e-(Z-µ)2/2σ2/√2πσ belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Gamma Noise

Rayleigh noise

Impulse Noise

67. This PDF P(Z)=ab zb-1 ae-az/(b-1) for Z>=0 belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Uniform noise

Gamma Noise

68. This PDF P(Z)= ae-az

Z>=0 belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Exponential noise

Rayleigh noise

Gamma Noise

69. This PDF P(Z)=1/(b-a) if a<=Z<=b belongs to which noise model?

Gaussian noise

Erlang noise

Uniform noise

Gamma Noise

70. ------------ is the process of recovering the input of the system from its output?

Blind image restoration

Inverse Filtering

Least Mean square filtering

Singular value Decomposition

71. Wiener filtering is a method of restoring images in the

presence of blurr as well as noise

presence of noise only

abscence of blurr as well as noise

absence of blurr only

72. Which transform gives best energy packing efficiency for any given image?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

SVD Transform

HAAR Transform

73. Which transform is useful in the design of filters finding least square?

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

KL Transform

SVD Transform

74. Hotteling Transform is also called as

KL Transform

HAAR Transform

SLANT Transform

SVD Transform

75. Which transform involves Principle of component analysis

SLANT Transform

HADAMARD Transform

KL Transform

SVD Transform

76. The basis of reduction process is removal of redundant data is called

image compression

image segmentation

image restoration

image enhancement

77. The pseudo inverse filter is defined as

H^(u,v)=1/(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=1/(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=(H(u,v)

H^(u,v)=(H(u,v)

78. This function represents which filter?

Contra harmonic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Arithmetic mean filter

79. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Contra harmonic mean filter

80. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Contra harmonic mean filter

Harmonic filters

81. This function represents which filter?

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Harmonic filters

Contra harmonic mean filter

82. The effect of salt and pepper noise can be eliminated using

Arithmetic mean filter

Geometric mean filter

Contra harmonic mean filter

Harmonic filters

83. Which filter has positive coefficient near the center and negative in the outer periphery.

Median filter

High pass spatial filter

Derivative filter

Low pass spatial filter

84. The first derivative at any point in an image is obtained by using

Laplacian at that point

the magnitude of the gradient at that point

the phase of the gradient at that point

Fourier transform at that point

85. The second derivative at any point in an image is obtained by using

Laplacian at that point

the magnitude of the gradient at that point

the phase of the gradient at that point

Fourier transform at that point

86. Compression Ratio =

original size - compressed size: 1

original size * compressed size: 1

original size + compressed size: 1

original size / compressed size: 1

87. Which is a technique used to reduce the size of a repeating string of characters?

Huffman coding

Runlength coding

Arithmetic coding

LZW coding

88. Run length coding is the example of

coding redundancy

compression redundancy

psycho visual redundancy

interpixel redundancy

89. ------------ transforms the input data into non-visual format.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

90. Which of this step is omitted if the system is error free.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

91. ----------- reduces the coding redundancy.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

92. ---------- reduces the interpixel redundancy.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

93. -------------- reduces the psycho visual redundancy of the input images.

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Symbol decoder

94. Hamming code is the example for

Symbol encoder

Mapper

Quantizer

Channel encoder

95. Variable Length Coding reduces

coding redundancy

compression redundancy

psycho visual redundancy

interpixel redundancy

96. A code word that is not a prefix of any other code word is called

Huffman code

Block code

Instantaneous code

Arithmetic code

97. One to one corresponds between source symbols and code word doesn’t exist in

Huffman code

Block code

LZW code

Arithmetic code

98. JPEG stands for

Joint Pixel Expert Group

Joint Photographic Expert Group

Joint Photographic Expand Group

Joint Picture Expert Group

99. Data Redundancy Rd =

1-Cr

1/Cr

1-1/Cr

1+1/Cr

Calculate the data redundancy if N1 = 2 , n2 =1

0.5

1

0

-1

Download this one mark with Answers

PREPARED BY

___

Er. M. ARUN M.E. MIEEE, MISTE

LECTURER ECE

## Monday, May 9, 2011

### Lock and Unlock Folders Using Text files

Windows needs special software's to lock and unlock the files. But windows itself providing the feature to lock and unlock the files. Here i am going to explain about the options to lock and unlock the files using the notepad.

First create a folder with any name (ex. bensh)

Now open a notepad and type the following inthe notepad

ren bensh bensh.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}

now save the file with the name lock.bat.

Now open a new notepad and type the following in the notepad.

ren bensh.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}bensh

now Save the file with the name key.bat.

Now Double click on the lock.bat file.

The folder will be locked.

To open the folder double click on the key.bat file.

Note that the lock.dat and the key.dat files should be in the same folder where the bensh folder was there.

This lock technique will not work in the Windows 7 OS.

First create a folder with any name (ex. bensh)

Now open a notepad and type the following inthe notepad

ren bensh bensh.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}

now save the file with the name lock.bat.

Now open a new notepad and type the following in the notepad.

ren bensh.{21EC2020-3AEA-1069-A2DD-08002B30309D}bensh

now Save the file with the name key.bat.

Now Double click on the lock.bat file.

The folder will be locked.

To open the folder double click on the key.bat file.

Note that the lock.dat and the key.dat files should be in the same folder where the bensh folder was there.

This lock technique will not work in the Windows 7 OS.

## Sunday, May 8, 2011

### Clean Up your PC and Improve the performance

Most of the people are using computers. All the offices and colleges have the computers for the business as well as for educational purpose. The computer’s plays an important role in the technology world. Every people are in need of computers in their daily life. Many applications have come to improve the business.

Every one use computer. But not everyone use the computer efficiently. Most of the computers will slow down the performance after some months. This is because of the unwanted memory in the hard disk. Windows provides some tools to improve the performance of the computer. These tools are Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, and Check Disk. We will see about how to do Disk Cleanup and make your computer works faster. Better do automatic schedule for Disk cleanup instead of doing it manually.

Follow the below steps to perform the Disk Cleanup:

Windows 7:

- Open Task Scheduler: Click the
**Start**button, click**Control Panel**, click**Administrative Tools**, and then double-click**Task Scheduler**. If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. - Click the
**Action**menu, and then click**Create Basic Task**. This opens the Create Basic Task Wizard. - Type a name for the task and an optional description, and then click
**Next**. - To select a schedule based on the calendar, click
**Daily**,**Weekly**,**Monthly**, or**One time**, and then click**Next**. - Specify the schedule you want to use, and then click
**Next**. - Click
**Start a program**, and then click**Next**. - Click
**Browse**, and, in the**File name**box, type**cleanmgr.exe**, click**Open**, and then click**Next**. - Click
**Finish**.

- Open Task Scheduler: Click the
**Start**button, click**Administrative Tools**, and then click**Task Scheduler**. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. - Click the
**Action**menu, and then click**Create Basic Task**. - Type a name for the task and an optional description, and then click
**Next**. - To select a schedule based on the calendar, click
**Daily**,**Weekly**,**Monthly**, or**One time**, and then click**Next**. - Specify the schedule you want to use, and then click
**Next**. - Click
**Start a program**, and then click**Next**. - Click
**Browse**, and, in the**File name**box, type**cleanmgr.exe**, click**Open**, and then click**Next**. - Click
**Finish**.

- Click
**Start**, and then click**Control Panel**. - Click
**Performance and Maintenance**. - Under
**or pick a Control Panel icon**, click**Scheduled Tasks**. - In the
**Scheduled Tasks**window, double-click**Add Scheduled Task**. - In the
**Scheduled Task Wizard**, click**Next**. - Scroll down to
**Disk Cleanup**in the list of Applications, click it (to highlight it), and then click**Next**. - Under
**Perform this task**, click**Weekly**, and then click**Next**. - Set the time and day of the week you would like to run Disk Cleanup. For best results, choose a time when you're typically at your computer so you can provide any required input. Click
**Next**. - Type your password in both the
**Enter the password**and**Confirm password**boxes, and then click**Next**. - Click
**Finish**.

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